Etiology: Streptobacillus moniliformis is a Gram-negative pleomorphic rod.
Incidence: The incidence of infection is rare in laboratory rats.
Transmission: S. moniliformis is found in the saliva, ocular and nasal secretions. It is spread through direct contact with or a bite from infected rats.
Clinical signs: Rats carry S. moniliformis asymptomatically in the nasopharynx.
Diagnosis: S. moniliformis can be diagnosed using culture, serology or PCR of a swab from the oral cavity.
Public Health Significance: People infected with S. moniliformis develop irregular recurrent fever with lymphadenopathy, petechial hemorrhages, polyarthritis and endocarditis.